Home / Pakistani Education / Important Topics of all Subjects of 4th Year MBBS with Books Guide – Educational Blog

Important Topics of all Subjects of 4th Year MBBS with Books Guide – Educational Blog

United statesLUT & MGT

Hematuria: Causes. Painless hematuria: Causes. Morphology of TCC. Classification & mode of unfold of testicular tumors. Predisposing components: Germ cellular tumors. Seminoma, spermatocytic seminoma & Matureteratoma: gross & microscopic options. three serum markers for testicular mass & their price. BPH situation: Dx, gross & microscopic options, secondary adjustments in kidney & LUT. Seminoma situation: Dx, four possibility components.

United statesFGT

Classification & Pathogenesis of ovarian neoplasms. Ovarian tumors related with BRCA 1 & 2. Cervical carcinoma: Most commonplace (in response to cellular of beginning), Risk components, position of HPV in pathogenesis, 2 commonplace HPV genotypes, spectrum of precancerous lesions, grading, medical staging. Endometriosis situation: three theories of pathogenesis, vital websites. Serous cystadenocarcinoma situation: Dx, options. Fibroids situation: Dx, websites, hormonal results on dimension. Endometrial most cancers: Dx, staging, possibility components.

UQs Breast

Classify breast tumors. Risk components for breast most cancers. Fibroadenoma situation: Dx, gross & microscopic options. Invasive ductal (NST) &lobular carcinomas: Morphology. Features utilized in Scarff-Bloom-Richardson gadget. Significance of ER/PR & Her 2-neu. Prognostic components & their relative significance in breast most cancers. Noninvasive investigation to guage benign or malignant nature of lump breast. Define strange hyperplasia. Risk of most cancers with strange ductalhyperplasia. Paget’s illness of breast situation: Dx, foundation. DCIS situation: Dx, varieties, microscopic image of comedocarcinoma.

UQs Musculoskeletal

Classify bone tumors. Rickets: Pathogenesis. Features of TB osteomyelitis. 2 primary manifestations of Gout. Gouty arthritis situation: Dx, pathogenesis, lab exams. Osteosarcoma situation: Dx, websites, subtypes, morphology. Duchenne muscle dystrophy situation: Dx, mode of inheritance, findings of muscle biopsy, definitive check. RA situation: Dx, histological options. Ewing sarcoma situation: Dx, gross & microscopic options.

United statesCNS

Difference b/w concussion & mind harm. Features of cerebrovascular illness. Astrocytoma situation: Dx & glial tumors varieties, histology of infiltrating astrocytoma. three tumors maximum often metastatic to mind. Meningioma situation: Dx, morphology, prognostic components. Medulloblastoma situation: Dx, tumor unfold, ominous complication. three microscopic abnormalities in Alzheimer’s. 2 varieties of acute ischemic harm to mind. 2 teams of mind infarcts.

United statesRBCs

Pathogenesis of beta thalessemia primary. Hb electrophoresis ends up in sickle cellular anemia. Mechanism of RBC sickling. Type of anemia in a girls having lengthy hx of menorrhagia, findings on peripheral smear & bone marrow examination, three biochemical exams. Adult reference levels for RBCs. Morphology & diagnostic standards of iron deficiency anemia.

United statesWBCs

Classification of WBC malignancies. Differences b/w Hodgkin & non Hodgkin lymphoma. Scenario HL: detailed morphology, varieties , diagnosis. Scenario Burkitt’s lymphoma: Dx, morphology, diagnosis. Scenario Multiple myeloma: investigations & their findings.

UQs Lungs

three reasons of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised with 2 examples for every. Pulmonary infections in AIDS sufferers with CD4 cellular depend

UQs Kidney

Scenario Pyelonephritis: Dx, five steps in pathogenesis with diagram. Spectrum of morphological adjustments in diabetic nephropathy. Scenario Acute Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis: Findings on urine examination & renal biopsy, medical route of illness. MPGN: Light & electron microscopic findings in renal biopsy. Scenario Minimal Change Disease: Dx, mild, electron microscopy & immunoflorescence findings. Nephrotic syndrome options. Name the most typical formative years tumor of kidney (Wilm’s), microscopic options, prognostic components. Causes of pre-renal azotemia.

UQs Blood Vessels

Define atherosclerosis, elements of plaque, arteries often concerned, its possibility components (You should know that are primary/minor & constitutive/controllable), headaches with their pathogenesis. Role of hyperlipidemia & monocytes in atherosclerosis.Define & Classify aneurysm. Etiology, morphology & medical route: Dissecting aneurysm. Temporal arteritis situation: Dx, DDx of granulomatous vasculitis of aorta, three pathogenic mechanisms in non-infective vasculitides. Kaposi sarcoma situation: varieties & morphology.

UQs Heart

MI situation: Coronary vessels & their spaces of provide. Gross & microscopic image of center at more than a few periods from MI. Complications & lab analysis of MI.Mitral valve lesions in a woman with SLE.Bacterial endocarditis situation: Dx, morphologic & medical options, headaches.RHD scenatio: Dx, morphologic & medical options, headaches.

UQs Endocrine System

Papillary ca situation: possibility components, morphology, three nuclear options. Thyrotoxic disaster. DDx of thyroid lesion with follicular development of enlargement. Difference b/w follicular adenoma & ca on histopathology. Mode & facet of metastasis of papillary & follicular ca thyroid. Morphology & its correlation with underlying pathology, investigations: poisonous multinodular goiter. Autoimmune thyroiditis situation: Dx, mechanism, 2 endocrine sicknesses related with it. Triad of manifestations in Graves illness. Morphology of thyrotoxic thyroid & thyroid adenoma. DKA situation: four medical & four metabolic options. Causes of coma in DKA. Management of acute DKA. Insulin resistance.

UQs Oral Cavity & Esophagus

:Name Salivary gland tumors. Oral most cancers: Risk components & morphology of SCC. Esophageal carcinoma situation: macroscopic enlargement patterns. Esophageal
SCC situation: Histology & possibility components. Barret Esophagus situation: Dx, histology, complication & its prediction on biopsy.

UQs Stomach

Define peptic ulcer. Mechanism of gastric ulcer. four primary sicknesses related with H pylori an infection. Active irritation options. Gastric carcinoma situation: Dx, histology, morphologic characteristic vital for diagnosis & possibility components. Role of H pylori in gastric ulcer. United statesIntestinesEnlist ulceroinflammatory prerequisites.Ulcerative colitis situation: Gross + Histological options & position of intestinal flowers in pathogenesis. Crohn’s illness situation: microscopic options. Justify wish to repeat rectal biopsy in Ulcerative colitis. Intestinal carcinoid situation (cutaneous flushes, diarrhea, cough, wheezing, hepatic mets): analysis, morphology and foundation of symptomology. Colonic adenocarcinoma: prognostic components & position of APC gene. Salmonella enterocolitis situation: Gross look, pathogenesis & comparability with intestinal TB. Sessile, cauliflower like mass in rectum with customary mucosa round: three DDs & components figuring out possibility of malignancy in such circumstances. Colonic polyps: Local complication. Multiple polyposis syndromes & their importance.

UQs Liver

Causes of Jaundice. Lab exams in a case with jaundice. Sequence of building of serological markers of Hep B (acute & persistent). Extrahepatic biliary atresia: Histological options in liver & enzymes increased on this situation. three liver sicknesses related with persistent intake of alcohol & histology of every. Histological options vital for analysis of Cirrhosis, its reasons & headaches. Collagen sort deposited in cirrhosis & cells generating it. Flow charts as an instance result: service of HBC with HDV superinfection. Chart the serology: HBV acute an infection with solution. Natural route of HCV an infection, exams earlier than beginning control. Role of Hep B & C in hepatic neoplasia.

UQs Biliary System & Pancreas

Define Cholelithiasis. Classify gallstones & talk about their etiology, possibility components & headaches. Expected microscopic options of a got rid of gall stone. Complications of cholelithiasis. Complications of acute pancreatitis.

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